So you're at that red X. Hey, everybody. Hi, how are you? This is doctor -- This is Dr. Barney Graham, who's the chief of the group that made the vaccine. Hi. And this is Dr. Kizzmekia Corbett -- Nice to meet you. -- who is very much involved in this process. Wow. Barney's going to tell you a little bit about what I was alluding to just a moment ago. Please. I'd like to tell you the 20-year history, but I'll just go back 10 years. Mm-hmm [Affirmative] Tell you a little bit about the kind of proteins we study. This is a representation of the virus, and these spiked proteins are what help the virus get into a cell. What we've learned over these last, uh, 10 years is that, uh, not just for this virus, but for other viruses. Uh, if you can control this spiked protein, and this is -- Uh, the scale of this is about 10 million of these can fit on the head of a pin. And this is about 10 million times larger than the actual protein. But we can see it in this kind of detail. The antibodies recognize the surfaces and shapes of this. So what we've learned is that you have to not only know the structure that hold it together, by creating mutations inside, that hold it in the right shape. If you hold it in the right shape, it becomes a better vaccine antigen. That, and since we knew that for other viruses. Since we learned that from MERS coronavirus, we were able to rapidly apply those, uh, techniques to this virus, and get off to a fast start with Moderna. And Dr. Corbett's going to tell you a little bit, a bit about this year that we've gone through. So well he just gave you the history for the last 10 -- 10 years, I'm going to history for about the last year. Where, um, as Dr. Graham and Dr. Fauci like to say, all we needed were the sequences. And the reason for that is because we knew exactly what to do, based on what Dr. Graham and us have been doing for the last 10 years. So this is a timeline of what we did. We got the sequences around January the 10th of last year. So that is the sequence of the virus that was spreading very rapidly in China. When we got those sequences, because we knew how to make that protein, as a very good vaccine, we did that really quickly over the weekend and by the 13th -- Over the weekend. [Laughs] Over the weekend. [Laughs] [Crosstalk] You can tell us something about working on weekends. Right? [Laughs] Not like that. Not like that. [Laughs] Just over the weekend, we had [Inaudible] Listen, you'll have plenty of time do all the things over the weekend, those next four years. [Laughs] So we decided, very quickly, with Moderna, that we were going to make this vaccine and we were going to use -- Uh, when did Moderna get into this? Did you guys -- We -- -- contact Moderna? We worked with Moderna during the Zika outbreak. Okay. And so we helped them with some of their animal studies. We were making one kind of vaccine. They were making an mRNA vaccine. Gotcha. We learned that their technology was good. So we made a deal, in 2017, to work on Paramecium viruses with the prototype, and with coronaviruses, with the prototype, which is that MERS coronavirus I mentioned. Yeah. Okay. We've been working with Moderna in a form of collaboration since 2017. Yes. And -- and -- and this coronavirus team, in particular, has been working with them in, how we call it here, in an academic for-, uh, fashion, where we were asking really basic questions about how to make vaccines for coronaviruses, the other coronaviruses, like MERS or SARS. So that's why we were trusting in our collaboration. And it allowed us to move very quickly to make an mRNA vaccine for this coronavirus that was spreading. And so what our team does is, in order to go to the clinic, you have to say, "Does this vaccine at least do what you think it might do in person, in a very small animal, like a mouse?" And so, we got the vaccine here. Um, I think actually, I was told that I was one of the first people to open a vial of the vaccine. And we immunized about 200 mice. And then about two weeks later, on February the 18th, we got our first results back from a mouse. So what you see here -- What did the mouse have to say? The mouse had to say, "It looks like we got a vaccine." And that's what that yellow says. Uh-huh [Affirmative] So those two, um, sides over here is our mice that do not have any vaccine at all. You can see their -- This plate shows they have no antibodies. Gotcha. Whereas, all of these mice have antibodies in their blood. So all you can do is you can put a spot of the antibody, or their blood on this plate. And this plate reads how much antibody is there. The brighter the yellow, the better. Mm-hmm [Affirmative] So imagine how we felt -- Yeah. -- when we saw that bright yellow. Um, and I'll -- I'll let Dr. Graham tell you a little bit about what we're doing, kind of -- I -- I actually like to think that I'm responding to a second pandemic, with all of the variants. It seems like we're working just about as hard as we were last year. Mm-hmm [Affirmative] But Dr. Graham is going to tell you a little bit about what we're in that regard. Yeah. So I just want you to know that when we first made that protein, on January 31st, it was right here on this bench. And when that ELISA plate was run, it was done right here on this bench. So, you're in the place where some of this stuff happened. You heard a lot of these variants and we're all -- Yeah. -- concerned about them, and -- I showed you the spiked proteins. There's other spiked proteins on that screen. And they're just representative of where some of these things have come up, in the different countries. And what we mean by variances, this protein is made up of 1,200 amnio acids or more. And each time one of those things changes, it can be a new variant. So this, uh, virus will accumulate changes. And you see the little red spots on the screen. Those are some of the amino acids that have been changed. So as this thing accumulates, uh, changes, you can imagine some of these surfaces might change, and so antibodies may not see it as well anymore. But, uh, I -- I want you to look at the right side, because that is a spiked protein. And we're showing you multiple antibodies binding to it, in different places. So it can bind on this knob over here. It can bind to this part up here, that reaches out and grabs a cell. And it can bind at different angles. And so when we give the vaccine, it's like this. It makes antibodies to the entire surface. So one red spot, or two red spots, or even nine red spots are not going to lose efficacy through those. Antibodies have a lot of places to land. Gotcha. It may eventually lose efficacy, but, uh, I think we're okay for now, until additional mutations accumulate. And it's probable additional mutations will accumulate, isn't it? Or is it? Unless we can keep people from spreading the virus. Yeah. Every time the virus enters a new person, it has a new chance to adapt and select. We have to get the virus lived in. That's why we say we want to vaccine as many people as we possibly can, as quickly as we possibly can. That's why your 100 days of getting 100 million is really important. 'Cause if you don't allow the virus to replicate, it's not going to mutate. Well, we're in a position now where we're just -- in talking with Jeff -- we've been pushing really, really hard with the manufacturing to significantly increase in the timeframe. Jeff, when will it be by? By June, we'll have -- how much will we have? We'll have 400 million does by June, which is enough to vaccinate 200 million Americans. And then you ordered another 200 million doses -- Yeah. -- to be delivered this summer. That's the best way to stop the mutations. No, I -- I realize that. And one of the things that -- you know, it's amazing how quickly things change in terms of people's perceptions, mine -- mine included. I know just a little tiny bit about this because I worked with that guy on cancer issues for a long, long while, [Inaudible] Cancer Institute. Anyway -- But what I didn't realize was just how much of the vaccine we're going to have to actually get produced. And it's one thing to have the vaccine; it's another thing to have vaccinators to put it into people's arms. And it's really turned out to be a gigantic logistical issue for us. And I can say -- I don't mean it as a criticism, just an observation -- when we -- we've been in office now three years -- no, three weeks. [Laughter] It just feels like three years. [Inaudible] But what happened is that we were led to -- if you ever hear anybody talking about transitions between pres -- between presidents, it's really important, because we didn't have any access to the transition. And you know, Dr. Fauci, about it. And so we thought, and we were led to believe, there was a lot more vaccine available than there was. And when I said "in the first hundred days" I guaranteed -- I promised that we would get 100 million shots in people's arms, everybody said, "No, that's -- you can't do that." It's amazing -- now I'm getting, "Why can't you get more?" Now we're getting a lot more on average, but it could be significantly more. But to get to the place where -- and these guys legitimately always ask me -- is: "When will we have enough vaccine to have that 300-plus million people?" And even though we've increased by close to 600 million -- promises of the vaccine -- we're going to be in a position where it's going to be -- it's not going to be by the end of the summer. And so all the Americans who are looking for it -- and that's why I keep listening to you talking about when we could theoretically reach enough of a saturation of access that we slow down the spread. And so, this is the -- it's an ama -- and, by the way, every department is jumping in. The Defense Department over there, they jumped right in like they did with dealing with Ebola before, in Africa. They're probably going to have, literally, over a hundred thou -- I mean, excuse me, 10,000 vaccinators. They're picking people up all over, [Inaudible] out of retirement. You never know. Mr. President, how worried are you about the variants? Well, we talked about the variants, and I'll -- rather than Joe Biden, the lawyer, explain the variants -- I think I understand it -- but I think it's important that, Doctor, you talk about the variants and what we're anticipating and what we think the situation is going to be. The 117 -- that's the UK variant that we feel the modelers are going to tell us is going to be dominant by the end of March -- the vaccines that we have now look pretty good against being able to prevent infection and certain disease. The South African variant is a little bit more problematic. It diminishes the capability of the vaccines to induce the virus's -- the antibodies that would suppress it. But it doesn't completely eliminate it, and we know that from studies with other vaccines in South Africa, where it went down to maybe 50 percent efficacy. But it was very good in preventing severe disease. In fact, there were no hospitalizations or deaths. The bottom line is: We take it seriously. We're following it. And if necessary, we're able to make boosts that reflect the variants in question. Are you upset with the state of the rollout before you got here, Mr. President? No, I'm not. I think -- look, these folks have been absolutely amazing. What I was upset with is not having all the facts that were available to the last outfit, that we did not know. So we were under the distinct impression there was significantly more vaccine available to begin to be distributed; that it was a distribution problem -- which it is and was, but that wasn't the main problem; it was having enough. And then getting -- you know, there's a big difference -- the logistical difference between having a vaccine sent to the States in bulk and refrigerated, and having vaccinators with the paraphernalia to put it into a vial and stick it in someone's arm -- is a very different and logistical problem -- difficult problem. So there's the vaccine. There is the access to the vaccine, in terms of how you get it where it has to be. That is a giant logistical issue, and we're solving that now. For example, we are, as of -- was it today, Jeff? We're doing -- we're making sure that all these federal systems, community -- Community health centers. -- community health centers that are federally run -- we are getting them -- what day are we getting -- Starting next week. Starting next week, they'll get -- And pharmacies start today. And the pharmacies start today. We thought, by listening -- at least my team did -- between the time we were elected and the time somebody recognized we were elected, that we thought that it was well underway; that the drugstores were beginning -- you know, all the places -- the Walmarts of the world -- were ready. But it turned out they weren't. And so we -- it's been a hell of a learning process. But you have done an enormous, enor -- all -- every other scientist I've talked to across the board said the idea that it would end in less than a year -- you'd come up with a vaccine -- [Crosstalk] Tell me what you do? By the way, your taxes are doing very, very well. Guys, keep moving.