James Buchanan: State of the Union Written Message - December 19, 1859

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    18.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    59,729
  • Sentences
    408
  • Words
    12,548
  • Syllables
    20,008
  • Words Per Sentence
    12,548
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.61

    Topics

  • News/Politics
  • Law & Government/Government
James Buchanan
Fellow-Citizens of the Senate and House of Representatives:

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    10.2
  • Gunning Fog
    3.6
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    11.3
  • ARI
    9.2

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.0
  • Sprache
    2.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.0
  • Sprache
    2.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    50
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    9
  • Syllables
    18
  • Words Per Sentence
    9
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.89

    Entities

  • House of Representatives
    [Organization]
  • Senate
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Our deep and heartfelt gratitude is due to that Almighty Power which has bestowed upon us such varied and numerous blessings throughout the past year. The general health of the country has been excellent, our harvests have been unusually plentiful, and prosperity smiles throughout the land.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.2
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Statistics

  • Characters
    242
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    46
  • Syllables
    79
  • Words Per Sentence
    46
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.65

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.95
  • AFINN
    14.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.16
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.06

    Entities

  • the past year
    [Date]
  • Almighty Power
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Indeed, notwithstanding our demerits, we have much reason to believe from the past events in our history that we have enjoyed the special protection of Divine Providence ever since our origin as a nation. We have been exposed to many threatening and alarming difficulties in our progress, but on each successive occasion the impending cloud has been dissipated at the moment it appeared ready to burst upon our head, and the danger to our institutions has passed away.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.4
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.4
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    385
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    78
  • Syllables
    136
  • Words Per Sentence
    78
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.65

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.51
  • AFINN
    -1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Topics

  • Jobs & Education
James Buchanan
May we ever be under the divine guidance and protection. Whilst it is the duty of the President "from time to time to give to Congress information of the state of the Union," I shall not refer in detail to the recent sad and bloody occurrences at Harpers Ferry. Still, it is proper to observe that these events, however bad and cruel in themselves, derive their chief importance from the apprehension that they are but symptoms of an incurable disease in the public mind, which may break out in still more dangerous outrages and terminate at last in an open war by the North to abolish slavery in the South.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    10.3
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    496
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    112
  • Syllables
    166
  • Words Per Sentence
    112
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.47

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.98
  • AFINN
    -17.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Topics

  • People & Society/Religion & Belief

    Entities

  • South
    [Location]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
  • Harpers Ferry
    [Person]
James Buchanan
Whilst for myself I entertain no such apprehension, they ought to afford a solemn warning to us all to beware of the approach of danger. Our Union is a stake of such inestimable value as to demand our constant and watchful vigilance for its preservation. In this view, let me implore my countrymen, North and South, to cultivate the ancient feelings of mutual forbearance and good will toward each other and strive to allay the demon spirit of sectional hatred and strife now alive in the land.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.2
  • Coleman Liau
    11.3
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    401
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    87
  • Syllables
    132
  • Words Per Sentence
    87
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.56

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.14
  • AFINN
    -6.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.02
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • North and South
    [Country, City, State]
James Buchanan
This advice proceeds from the heart of an old public functionary whose service commenced in the last generation, among the wise and conservative statesmen of that day, now nearly all passed away, and whose first and dearest earthly wish is to leave his country tranquil, prosperous, united, and powerful.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    249
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    49
  • Syllables
    86
  • Words Per Sentence
    49
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.61

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.97
  • AFINN
    8.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.09
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Topics

  • News/Politics

    Entities

  • that day
    [Date]
  • first
    [Ordinal Number]
James Buchanan
We ought to reflect that in this age, and especially in this country, there is an incessant flux and reflux of public opinion.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    10.8
  • Gunning Fog
    14.4
  • Coleman Liau
    10.1
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    10.8

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.3
  • Sprache
    4.2

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.3
  • Sprache
    4.2

    Statistics

  • Characters
    101
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    23
  • Syllables
    33
  • Words Per Sentence
    23
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.48

    Sentiment

  • Harvard IV
    -0.08
James Buchanan
Questions which in their day assumed a most threatening aspect have now nearly gone from the memory of men. They are "volcanoes burnt out, and on the lava and ashes and squalid scoria of old eruptions grow the peaceful olive, the cheering vine, and the sustaining corn." Such, in my opinion, will prove to be the fate of the present sectional excitement should those who wisely seek to apply the remedy continue always to confine their efforts within the pale of the Constitution.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    17.0
  • Coleman Liau
    11.6
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.4
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.4
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    396
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    85
  • Syllables
    133
  • Words Per Sentence
    85
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.55

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.83
  • AFINN
    5.00
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • their day
    [Date]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
James Buchanan
If this course be pursued, the existing agitation on the subject of domestic slavery, like everything human, will have its day and give place to other and less threatening controversies. Public opinion in this country is all-powerful, and when it reaches a dangerous excess upon any question the good sense of the people will furnish the corrective and bring it back within safe limits.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    316
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    65
  • Syllables
    107
  • Words Per Sentence
    65
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.62

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.67
  • AFINN
    -1.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.11
James Buchanan
Still, to hasten this auspicious result at the present crisis we ought to remember that every rational creature must be presumed to intend the natural consequences of his own teachings. Those who announce abstract doctrines subversive of the Constitution and the Union must not be surprised should their heated partisans advance one step further and attempt by violence to carry these doctrines into practical effect.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.4
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.4
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    350
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    65
  • Syllables
    115
  • Words Per Sentence
    65
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.74

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.85
  • AFINN
    -7.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.01

    Topics

  • People & Society/Religion & Belief

    Entities

  • one
    [Cardinal Number]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
James Buchanan
In this view of the subject, it ought never to be forgotten that however great may have been the political advantages resulting from the Union to every portion of our common country, these would all prove to be as nothing should the time ever arrive when they can not be enjoyed without serious danger to the personal safety of the people of fifteen members of the Confederacy.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    11.3
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    308
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    67
  • Syllables
    105
  • Words Per Sentence
    67
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.61

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.89
  • AFINN
    5.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.07

    Entities

  • fifteen
    [Cardinal Number]
  • Confederacy
    [Organization]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
If the peace of the domestic fireside throughout these States should ever be invaded, if the mothers of families within this extensive region should not be able to retire to rest at night without suffering dreadful apprehensions of what may be their own fate and that of their children before the morning, it would be vain to recount to such a people the political benefits which result to them from the Union.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    11.7
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    336
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    72
  • Syllables
    112
  • Words Per Sentence
    72
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.51

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.84
  • AFINN
    -1.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.04

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Self-preservation is the first instinct of nature, and therefore any state of society in which the sword is all the time suspended over the heads of the people must at last become intolerable. But I indulge in no such gloomy forebodings. On the contrary, I firmly believe that the events at Harpers Ferry, by causing the people to pause and reflect upon the possible peril to their cherished institutions, will be the means under Providence of allaying the existing excitement and preventing further outbreaks of a similar character.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    438
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    89
  • Syllables
    149
  • Words Per Sentence
    89
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.67

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.43
  • AFINN
    -4.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.02
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Entities

  • Harpers Ferry
    [Infrastructure]
  • first
    [Ordinal Number]
James Buchanan
They will resolve that the Constitution and the Union shall not be endangered by rash counsels, knowing that should "the silver cord be loosed or the golden bowl be broken at the fountain" human power could never reunite the scattered and hostile fragments. I cordially congratulate you upon the final settlement by the Supreme Court of the United States of the question of slavery in the Territories, which had presented an aspect so truly formidable at the commencement of my Administration.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    415
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    82
  • Syllables
    140
  • Words Per Sentence
    82
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.67

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.41
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Topics

  • Law & Government

    Entities

  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • Administration
    [Organization]
  • the Supreme Court of the United States
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
The right has been established of every citizen to take his property of any kind, including slaves, into the common Territories belonging equally to all the States of the Confederacy, and to have it protected there under the Federal Constitution. Neither Congress nor a Territorial legislature nor any human power has any authority to annul or impair this vested right.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    18.7
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    305
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    60
  • Syllables
    112
  • Words Per Sentence
    60
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.87

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.81
  • Harvard IV
    0.11
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Entities

  • the States of the Confederacy
    [Country, City, State]
  • the Federal Constitution
    [Law]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
The supreme judicial tribunal of the country, which is a coordinate branch of the Government, has sanctioned and affirmed these principles of constitutional law, so manifestly just in themselves and so well calculated to promote peace and harmony among the States. It is a striking proof of the sense of justice which is inherent in our people that the property in slaves has never been disturbed, to my knowledge, in any of the Territories.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    361
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    74
  • Syllables
    127
  • Words Per Sentence
    74
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.62

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.96
  • AFINN
    6.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.05
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.01

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Legal
  • Law & Government/Government/Courts & Judiciary

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Territories
    [Location]
  • Government
    [Organization]
  • The supreme judicial tribunal
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Even throughout the late troubles in Kansas there has not been any attempt, as I am credibly informed, to interfere in a single instance with the right of the master. Had any such attempt been made, the judiciary would doubtless have afforded an adequate remedy. Should they fail to do this hereafter, it will then be time enough to strengthen their hands by further legislation.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.0
  • Gunning Fog
    13.6
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.7

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.0
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.0
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Statistics

  • Characters
    308
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    65
  • Syllables
    102
  • Words Per Sentence
    65
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.54

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.34
  • AFINN
    -1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.01

    Entities

  • Kansas
    [Country, City, State]
James Buchanan
Had it been decided that either Congress or the Territorial legislature possess the power to annul or impair the right to property in slaves, the evil would be intolerable. In the latter event there would be a struggle for a majority of the members of the legislature at each successive election, and the sacred rights of property held under the Federal Constitution would depend for the time being on the result.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.4
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.4
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    339
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    71
  • Syllables
    115
  • Words Per Sentence
    71
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.68

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.68
  • AFINN
    -10.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.01

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Government

    Entities

  • the Federal Constitution
    [Law]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
The agitation would thus be rendered incessant whilst the Territorial condition remained, and its baneful influence would keep alive a dangerous excitement among the people of the several States. Thus has the status of a Territory during the intermediate period from its first settlement until it shall become a State been irrevocably fixed by the final decision of the Supreme Court.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    321
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    61
  • Syllables
    115
  • Words Per Sentence
    61
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.8

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.65
  • AFINN
    7.00

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Territory
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • first
    [Ordinal Number]
  • State
    [Organization]
  • the Supreme Court
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Fortunate has this been for the prosperity of the Territories, as well as the tranquillity of the States. Now emigrants from the North and the South, the East and the West, will meet in the Territories on a common platform, having brought with them that species of property best adapted, in their own opinion, to promote their welfare.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    15.7
  • Coleman Liau
    11.6
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    270
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    58
  • Syllables
    87
  • Words Per Sentence
    58
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.48

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.93
  • AFINN
    9.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.08
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Entities

  • East
    [Location]
  • North
    [Location]
  • South
    [Location]
  • Territories
    [Location]
  • West
    [Location]
James Buchanan
From natural causes the slavery question will in each case soon virtually settle itself, and before the Territory is prepared for admission as a State into the Union this decision, one way or the other, will have been a foregone conclusion. Meanwhile the settlement of the new Territory will proceed without serious interruption, and its progress and prosperity will not be endangered or retarded by violent political struggles.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    355
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    68
  • Syllables
    124
  • Words Per Sentence
    68
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.81

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.81
  • AFINN
    -4.00
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.04

    Topics

  • People & Society/Social Issues & Advocacy

    Entities

  • one
    [Cardinal Number]
  • Territory
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • State
    [Organization]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
When in the progress of events the inhabitants of any Territory shall have reached the number required to form a State, they will then proceed in a regular manner and in the exercise of the rights of popular sovereignty to form a constitution preparatory to admission into the Union. After this has been done, to employ the language of the Kansas and Nebraska act, they "shall be received into the Union with or without slavery, as their constitution may prescribe at the time of their admission." This sound principle has happily been recognized in some form or other by an almost unanimous vote of both Houses of the last Congress.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    11.7
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    523
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    112
  • Syllables
    177
  • Words Per Sentence
    112
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.61

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.93
  • AFINN
    3.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.05
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.03

    Entities

  • Kansas
    [Country, City, State]
  • Nebraska
    [Country, City, State]
  • Territory
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
  • Houses
    [Organization]
  • State
    [Organization]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
All lawful means at my command have been employed, and shall continue to be employed, to execute the laws against the African slave trade. After a most careful and rigorous examination of our coasts and a thorough investigation of the subject, we have not been able to discover that any slaves have been imported into the United States except the cargo by the Wanderer, numbering between three and four hundred.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    18.6
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.3
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.3
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    336
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    70
  • Syllables
    117
  • Words Per Sentence
    70
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.6

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.32
  • Harvard IV
    0.01
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Entities

  • between three and four hundred
    [Cardinal Number]
  • the United States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Wanderer
    [Country, City, State]
  • African
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
James Buchanan
Those engaged in this unlawful enterprise have been rigorously prosecuted, but not with as much success as their crimes have deserved. A number of them are still under prosecution. Our history proves that the fathers of the Republic, in advance of all other nations, condemned the African slave trade. It was, notwithstanding, deemed expedient by the framers of the Constitution to deprive Congress of the power to prohibit "the migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit" "prior to the year 1808." It will be seen that this restriction on the power of Congress was confined to such States only as might think proper to admit the importation of slaves.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    14.7
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    591
  • Sentences
    5
  • Words
    123
  • Syllables
    200
  • Words Per Sentence
    123
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.54

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.77
  • AFINN
    -14.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.02
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.04

    Topics

  • Law & Government

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • the year 1808
    [Date]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • African
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
It did not extend to other States or to the trade carried on abroad. Accordingly, we find that so early as the 22d March, 1794, Congress passed an act imposing severe penalties and punishments upon citizens and residents of the United States who should engage in this trade between foreign nations. The provisions of this act were extended and enforced by the act of 10th May, 1800. Again, the States themselves had a clear right to waive the constitutional privilege intended for their benefit, and to prohibit by their own laws this trade at any time they thought proper previous to 1808. Several of them exercised this right before that period, and among them some containing the greatest number of slaves.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.5
  • Gunning Fog
    15.6
  • Coleman Liau
    11.5
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    561
  • Sentences
    5
  • Words
    121
  • Syllables
    186
  • Words Per Sentence
    121
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.5

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.89
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.03

    Topics

  • Law & Government

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • the United States
    [Country, City, State]
  • May, 1800
    [Date]
  • previous to 1808
    [Date]
  • the 22d March, 1794
    [Date]
  • 10th
    [Ordinal Number]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
This gave to Congress the immediate power to act in regard to all such States, because they themselves had removed the constitutional barrier. Congress accordingly passed an act on 28th February, 1803, "to prevent the importation of certain persons into certain States where by the laws thereof their admission is prohibited." In this manner the importation of African slaves into the United States was to a great extent prohibited some years in advance of 1808. As the year 1808 approached Congress determined not to suffer this trade to exist even for a single day after they had the power to abolish it.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    15.0
  • Coleman Liau
    11.9
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    490
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    104
  • Syllables
    166
  • Words Per Sentence
    104
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.59

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.93
  • Harvard IV
    0.02
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.01

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Government

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • the United States
    [Country, City, State]
  • 1808
    [Date]
  • 28th February, 1803
    [Date]
  • a single day
    [Date]
  • some years
    [Date]
  • the year 1808
    [Date]
  • African
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
On the 2d of March, 1807, they passed an act, to take effect "from and after the 1st day of January, 1808," prohibiting the importation of African slaves into the United States. This was followed by subsequent acts of a similar character, to which I need not specially refer. Such were the principles and such the practice of our ancestors more than fifty years ago in regard to the African slave trade.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.6
  • Gunning Fog
    14.7
  • Coleman Liau
    9.6
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.2

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    319
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    74
  • Syllables
    111
  • Words Per Sentence
    74
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.49

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.42
  • AFINN
    -5.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.01

    Entities

  • the United States
    [Country, City, State]
  • more than fifty years ago
    [Date]
  • the 1st day of January, 1808
    [Date]
  • the 2d of March, 1807
    [Date]
  • African
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
James Buchanan
It did not occur to the revered patriots who had been delegates to the Convention, and afterwards became members of Congress, that in passing these laws they had violated the Constitution which they had framed with so much care and deliberation. They supposed that to prohibit Congress in express terms from exercising a specified power before an appointed day necessarily involved the right to exercise this power after that day had arrived.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.4
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.4
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    367
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    72
  • Syllables
    124
  • Words Per Sentence
    72
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.68

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.52
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Topics

  • News/Politics

    Entities

  • that day
    [Date]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
If this were not the case, the framers of the Constitution had expended much labor in vain. Had they imagined that Congress would possess no power to prohibit the trade either before or after 1808, they would not have taken so much care to protect the States against the exercise of this power before that period.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    14.8
  • Coleman Liau
    10.5
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    250
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    56
  • Syllables
    88
  • Words Per Sentence
    56
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.45

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.27
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.02

    Entities

  • the States
    [Country, City, State]
  • 1808
    [Date]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Nay, more, they would not have attached such vast importance to this provision as to have excluded it from the possibility of future repeal or amendment, to which other portions of the Constitution were exposed. It would, then, have been wholly unnecessary to ingraft on the fifth article of the Constitution, prescribing the mode of its own future amendment, the proviso "that no amendment which may be made prior to the year 1808 shall in any manner affect" the provision in the Constitution securing to the States the right to admit the importation of African slaves previous to that period.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    8.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    8.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    488
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    101
  • Syllables
    163
  • Words Per Sentence
    101
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.63

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.18
  • AFINN
    -6.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • 1808
    [Date]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • African
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • fifth
    [Ordinal Number]
  • Nay
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
According to the adverse construction, the clause itself, on which so much care and discussion had been employed by the members of the Convention, was an absolute nullity from the beginning, and all that has since been done under it a mere usurpation. It was well and wise to confer this power on Congress, because had it been left to the States its efficient exercise would have been impossible.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    11.6
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    321
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    69
  • Syllables
    110
  • Words Per Sentence
    69
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.49

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.84
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.05
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.01

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
In that event any one State could have effectually continued the trade, not only for itself, but for all the other slave States, though never so much against their will. And why? Because African slaves, when once brought within the limits of any one State in accordance with its laws, can not practically be excluded from any State where slavery exists.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    9.9
  • Gunning Fog
    12.1
  • Coleman Liau
    11.7
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    10.7

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    3.9
  • Sprache
    4.4

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    3.9
  • Sprache
    4.4

    Statistics

  • Characters
    285
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    61
  • Syllables
    99
  • Words Per Sentence
    61
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.49

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.73
  • AFINN
    -12.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.02
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • one
    [Cardinal Number]
  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • African
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • State
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
And even if all the States had separately passed laws prohibiting the importation of slaves, these laws would have failed of effect for want of a naval force to capture the slavers and to guard the coast. Such a force no State can employ in time of peace without the consent of Congress. These acts of Congress, it is believed, have, with very rare and insignificant exceptions, accomplished their purpose.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    10.7
  • Gunning Fog
    12.8
  • Coleman Liau
    11.9
  • SMOG
    11.3
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    329
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    70
  • Syllables
    115
  • Words Per Sentence
    70
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.46

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.28
  • AFINN
    -1.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.01
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.01

    Topics

  • Law & Government

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
  • State
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
For a period of more than half a century there has been no perceptible addition to the number of our domestic slaves. During this period their advancement in civilization has far surpassed that of any other portion of the African race. The light and the blessings of Christianity have been extended to them, and both their moral and physical condition has been greatly improved.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.7
  • Gunning Fog
    15.4
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Statistics

  • Characters
    311
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    64
  • Syllables
    105
  • Words Per Sentence
    64
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.61

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.72
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.06
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.06

    Topics

  • People & Society/Religion & Belief

    Entities

  • more than half a century
    [Date]
  • African
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • Christianity
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
James Buchanan
Reopen the trade and it would be difficult to determine whether the effect would be more deleterious on the interests of the master or on those of the native-born slave. Of the evils to the master, the one most to be dreaded would be the introduction of wild, heathen, and ignorant barbarians among the sober, orderly, and quiet slaves whose ancestors have been on the soil for several generations.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    11.3
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    322
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    70
  • Syllables
    109
  • Words Per Sentence
    70
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.57

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.88
  • AFINN
    -10.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.01
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03
James Buchanan
This might tend to barbarize, demoralize, and exasperate the whole mass and produce most deplorable consequences. The effect upon the existing slave would, if possible, be still more deplorable. At present he is treated with kindness and humanity. He is well fed, well clothed, and not overworked. His condition is incomparably better than that of the coolies which modern nations of high civilization have employed as a substitute for African slaves.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    10.4
  • Gunning Fog
    13.6
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    10.2

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Statistics

  • Characters
    370
  • Sentences
    5
  • Words
    71
  • Syllables
    128
  • Words Per Sentence
    71
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.73

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.84
  • AFINN
    -4.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.01
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.03

    Entities

  • African
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • fed
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Both the philanthropy and the self-interest of the master have combined to produce this humane result. But let this trade be reopened and what will be the effect? The same to a considerable extent as on a neighboring island, the only spot now on earth where the African slave trade is openly tolerated, and this in defiance of solemn treaties with a power abundantly able at any moment to enforce their execution.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    15.2
  • Coleman Liau
    11.3
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    336
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    73
  • Syllables
    119
  • Words Per Sentence
    73
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.6

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.12
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.01
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.01

    Topics

  • People & Society/Social Issues & Advocacy/Charity & Philanthropy

    Entities

  • earth
    [Location]
  • African
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
James Buchanan
There the master, intent upon present gain, extorts from the slave as much labor as his physical powers are capable of enduring, knowing that when death comes to his relief his place can be supplied at a price reduced to the lowest point by the competition of rival African slave traders. Should this ever be the case in our country, which I do not deem possible, the present useful character of the domestic institution, wherein those too old and too young to work are provided for with care and humanity and those capable of labor are not overtasked, would undergo an unfortunate change.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    11.5
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    478
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    103
  • Syllables
    169
  • Words Per Sentence
    103
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.51

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.81
  • AFINN
    -1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • African
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
James Buchanan
The feeling of reciprocal dependence and attachment which now exists between master and slave would be converted into mutual distrust and hostility. But we are obliged as a Christian and moral nation to consider what would be the effect upon unhappy Africa itself if we should reopen the slave trade. This would give the trade an impulse and extension which it has never had, even in its palmiest days.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.2
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    330
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    69
  • Syllables
    112
  • Words Per Sentence
    69
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.64

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.72
  • AFINN
    -10.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.01

    Topics

  • People & Society

    Entities

  • its palmiest days
    [Date]
  • Africa
    [Location]
  • Christian
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
James Buchanan
The numerous victims required to supply it would convert the whole slave coast into a perfect pandemonium, for which this country would be held responsible in the eyes both of God and man. Its petty tribes would then be constantly engaged in predatory wars against each other for the purpose of seizing slaves to supply the American market.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    15.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    280
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    58
  • Syllables
    93
  • Words Per Sentence
    58
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.55

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.48
  • AFINN
    -5.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.03
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Entities

  • American
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
James Buchanan
All hopes of African civilization would thus be ended. On the other hand, when a market for African slaves shall no longer be furnished in Cuba, and thus all the world be closed against this trade,we may then indulge a reasonable hope for the gradual improvement of Africa. The chief motive of war among the tribes will cease whenever there is no longer any demand for slaves.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.1
  • Gunning Fog
    13.2
  • Coleman Liau
    10.5
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.8
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.8
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    304
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    68
  • Syllables
    107
  • Words Per Sentence
    68
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.51

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.48
  • AFINN
    -5.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.07

    Entities

  • Cuba
    [Country, City, State]
  • Africa
    [Location]
  • African
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
James Buchanan
The resources of that fertile but miserable country might then be developed by the hand of industry and afford subjects for legitimate foreign and domestic commerce. In this manner Christianity and civilization may gradually penetrate the existing gloom. The wisdom of the course pursued by this Government toward China has been vindicated by the event.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    15.3
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.9
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.9
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Statistics

  • Characters
    296
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    55
  • Syllables
    102
  • Words Per Sentence
    55
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.82

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.53
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.02
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Topics

  • People & Society

    Entities

  • China
    [Country, City, State]
James Buchanan
Whilst we sustained a neutral position in the war waged by Great Britain and France against the Chinese Empire, our late minister, in obedience to his instructions, judiciously cooperated with the ministers of these powers in all peaceful measures to secure by treaty the just concessions demanded by the interests of foreign commerce.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    9.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    9.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    279
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    53
  • Syllables
    95
  • Words Per Sentence
    53
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.72

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.71
  • AFINN
    5.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.11
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Topics

  • Law & Government

    Entities

  • France
    [Country, City, State]
  • Great Britain
    [Country, City, State]
  • the Chinese Empire
    [Country, City, State]
James Buchanan
The result is that satisfactory treaties have been concluded with China by the respective ministers of the United States, Great Britain, France, and Russia. Our "treaty, or general convention, of peace, amity, and commerce" with that Empire was concluded at Tien-tsin on the 18th June, 1858, and was ratified by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, on the 21st December following.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    326
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    69
  • Syllables
    109
  • Words Per Sentence
    69
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.55

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.95
  • AFINN
    10.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.11
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.03

    Topics

  • Reference
  • Law & Government/Government

    Entities

  • China
    [Country, City, State]
  • Empire
    [Country, City, State]
  • France
    [Country, City, State]
  • Great Britain
    [Country, City, State]
  • Russia
    [Country, City, State]
  • the United States
    [Country, City, State]
  • the 18th June, 1858
    [Date]
  • the 21st December
    [Date]
  • Senate
    [Organization]
  • Tien-tsin
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
On the 15th December, 1858, John E. Ward, a distinguished citizen of Georgia, was duly commissioned as envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to China. He left the United States for the place of his destination on the 5th of February, 1859, bearing with him the ratified copy of this treaty, and arrived at Shanghai on the 28th May.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    13.3
  • Coleman Liau
    10.8
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    9.5

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    262
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    58
  • Syllables
    93
  • Words Per Sentence
    58
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.71

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.53
  • AFINN
    5.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.08
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Government

    Entities

  • China
    [Country, City, State]
  • Georgia
    [Country, City, State]
  • Shanghai
    [Country, City, State]
  • the United States
    [Country, City, State]
  • the 15th December, 1858
    [Date]
  • the 28th
    [Date]
  • the 5th of February, 1859
    [Date]
  • John E. Ward
    [Person]
James Buchanan
From thence he proceeded to Peking on the 16th June, but did not arrive in that city until the 27th July. According to the terms of the treaty, the ratifications were to be exchanged on or before the 18th June, 1859. This was rendered impossible by reasons and events beyond his control, not necessary to detail;

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    9.2
  • Gunning Fog
    11.0
  • Coleman Liau
    9.4
  • SMOG
    10.6
  • ARI
    8.1

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Statistics

  • Characters
    240
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    56
  • Syllables
    85
  • Words Per Sentence
    56
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.48

    Sentiment

  • Harvard IV
    0.05
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • Peking
    [Country, City, State]
  • the 16th June
    [Date]
  • the 18th June, 1859
    [Date]
  • the 27th July
    [Date]
James Buchanan
But still it is due to the Chinese authorities at Shanghai to state that they always assured him no advantage should be taken of the delay, and this pledge has been faithfully redeemed.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.8
  • Coleman Liau
    11.1
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    151
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    33
  • Syllables
    49
  • Words Per Sentence
    33
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.42

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.70
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.10
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.03

    Entities

  • Shanghai
    [Country, City, State]
  • Chinese
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
James Buchanan
On the arrival of Mr. Ward at Peking he requested an audience of the Emperor to present his letter of credence. This he did not obtain, in consequence of his very proper refusal to submit to the humiliating ceremonies required by the etiquette of this strange people in approaching their sovereign. Nevertheless, the interviews on this question were conducted in the most friendly spirit and with all due regard to his personal feelings and the honor of his country.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.8
  • Gunning Fog
    15.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.2

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.8
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.8
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    382
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    79
  • Syllables
    131
  • Words Per Sentence
    79
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.67

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.67
  • AFINN
    4.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.06

    Topics

  • Arts & Entertainment

    Entities

  • Peking
    [Country, City, State]
  • Ward
    [Person]
James Buchanan
When a presentation to His Majesty was found to be impossible, the letter of credence from the President was received with peculiar honors by Kweiliang, "the Emperor's prime minister and the second man in the Empire to the Emperor himself." The ratifications of the treaty were afterwards, on the 16th of August, exchanged in proper form at Peit-sang.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.1
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    290
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    61
  • Syllables
    98
  • Words Per Sentence
    61
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.61

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.60
  • Harvard IV
    0.08

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Government

    Entities

  • Empire
    [Country, City, State]
  • Peit
    [Country, City, State]
  • the 16th of August
    [Date]
  • Emperor's
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • second
    [Ordinal Number]
  • Kweiliang
    [Person]
James Buchanan
As the exchange did not take place until after the day prescribed by the treaty, it is deemed proper before its publication again to submit it to the Senate. It is but simple justice to the Chinese authorities to observe that throughout the whole transaction they appear to have acted in good faith and in a friendly spirit toward the United States.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    14.3
  • Coleman Liau
    11.3
  • SMOG
    11.3
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    285
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    62
  • Syllables
    95
  • Words Per Sentence
    62
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.48

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.97
  • AFINN
    10.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.06
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Entities

  • the United States
    [Country, City, State]
  • the day
    [Date]
  • Chinese
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • Senate
    [Organization]