James Buchanan: State of the Union Written Message - December 3, 1860

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    17.8
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    68,483
  • Sentences
    489
  • Words
    14,194
  • Syllables
    23,166
  • Words Per Sentence
    14,194
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.64

    Topics

  • News/Politics
  • Law & Government/Government
James Buchanan
Fellow-Citizens of the Senate and House of Representatives:

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    10.2
  • Gunning Fog
    3.6
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    11.3
  • ARI
    9.2

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.0
  • Sprache
    2.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.0
  • Sprache
    2.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    50
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    9
  • Syllables
    18
  • Words Per Sentence
    9
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.89

    Entities

  • House of Representatives
    [Organization]
  • Senate
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Throughout the year since our last meeting the country has been eminently prosperous in all its material interests. The general health has been excellent, our harvests have been abundant, and plenty smiles throughout the laud. Our commerce and manufactures have been prosecuted with energy and industry, and have yielded fair and ample returns.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.1
  • Gunning Fog
    15.4
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    4.4

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    4.4

    Statistics

  • Characters
    286
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    53
  • Syllables
    93
  • Words Per Sentence
    53
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.68

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.91
  • AFINN
    9.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.21
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.05

    Entities

  • the year
    [Date]
James Buchanan
In short, no nation in the tide of time has ever presented a spectacle of greater material prosperity than we have done until within a very recent period. Why is it, then, that discontent now so extensively prevails, and the Union of the States, which is the source of all these blessings, is threatened with destruction?

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.9
  • Coleman Liau
    11.3
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    258
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    56
  • Syllables
    88
  • Words Per Sentence
    56
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.55

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.44
  • AFINN
    3.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.03

    Entities

  • the Union of the States
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
The long-continued and intemperate interference of the Northern people with the question of slavery in the Southern States has at length produced its natural effects. The different sections of the Union are now arrayed against each other, and the time has arrived, so much dreaded by the Father of his Country, when hostile geographical parties have been formed.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    17.2
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    299
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    59
  • Syllables
    100
  • Words Per Sentence
    59
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.63

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.80
  • AFINN
    -6.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.03
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Entities

  • the Southern States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Northern
    [Location]
James Buchanan
I have long foreseen and often forewarned my countrymen of the now impending danger. This does not proceed solely from the claim on the part of Congress or the Territorial legislatures to exclude slavery from the Territories, nor from the efforts of different States to defeat the execution of the fugitive-slave law.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    15.9
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    262
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    53
  • Syllables
    93
  • Words Per Sentence
    53
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.6

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.92
  • AFINN
    -11.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.10
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.09

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Territories
    [Location]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
All or any of these evils might have been endured by the South without danger to the Union (as others have been) in the hope that time and reflection might apply the remedy. The immediate peril arises not so much from these causes as from the fact that the incessant and violent agitation of the slavery question throughout the North for the last quarter of a century has at length produced its malign influence on the slaves and inspired them with vague notions of freedom.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    10.9
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.8
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.8
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    386
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    85
  • Syllables
    131
  • Words Per Sentence
    85
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.48

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.66
  • AFINN
    -9.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.05
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Entities

  • the last quarter of a century
    [Date]
  • North
    [Location]
  • South
    [Location]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Hence a sense of security no longer exists around the family altar. This feeling of peace at home has given place to apprehensions of servile insurrections. Many a matron throughout the South retires at night in dread of what may befall herself and children before the morning. Should this apprehension of domestic danger, whether real or imaginary, extend and intensify itself until it shall pervade the masses of the Southern people, then disunion will become inevitable.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    12.9
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    391
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    76
  • Syllables
    134
  • Words Per Sentence
    76
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.78

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.71
  • AFINN
    -1.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.02
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.04

    Entities

  • South
    [Location]
  • Southern
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • before the morning
    [Time]
  • night
    [Time]
James Buchanan
Self-preservation is the first law of nature, and has been implanted in the heart of man by his Creator for the wisest purpose; and no political union, however fraught with blessings and benefits in all other respects, can long continue if the necessary consequence be to render the homes and the firesides of nearly half the parties to it habitually and hopelessly insecure.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    307
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    64
  • Syllables
    107
  • Words Per Sentence
    64
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.64

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.88
  • AFINN
    4.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.08

    Entities

  • nearly half
    [Cardinal Number]
  • first
    [Ordinal Number]
  • Creator
    [Person]
James Buchanan
Sooner or later the bonds of such a union must be severed. It is my conviction that this fatal period has not yet arrived, and my prayer to God is that He would preserve the Constitution and the Union throughout all generations. But let us take warning in time and remove the cause of danger. It can not be denied that for five and twenty years the agitation at the North against slavery has been incessant.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    9.1
  • Gunning Fog
    11.3
  • Coleman Liau
    9.5
  • SMOG
    11.8
  • ARI
    8.3

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.9
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.9
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Statistics

  • Characters
    327
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    76
  • Syllables
    111
  • Words Per Sentence
    76
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.46

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.96
  • AFINN
    -12.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.05

    Entities

  • five and twenty years
    [Date]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • North
    [Location]
James Buchanan
In 1835 pictorial handbills and inflammatory appeals were circulated extensively throughout the South of a character to excite the passions of the slaves, and, in the language of General Jackson, "to stimulate them to insurrection and produce all the horrors of a servile war." This agitation has ever since been continued by the public press, by the proceedings of State and county conventions and by abolition sermons and lectures.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    361
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    71
  • Syllables
    124
  • Words Per Sentence
    71
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.7

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.39
  • AFINN
    -1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.03
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.01

    Topics

  • People & Society

    Entities

  • 1835
    [Date]
  • South
    [Location]
  • State
    [Organization]
  • Jackson
    [Person]
James Buchanan
The time of Congress has been occupied in violent speeches on this never-ending subject, and appeals, in pamphlet and other forms, indorsed by distinguished names, have been sent forth from this central point and spread broadcast over the Union. How easy would it be for the American people to settle the slavery question forever and to restore peace and harmony to this distracted country! They, and they alone, can do it.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.6
  • Gunning Fog
    13.5
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    343
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    72
  • Syllables
    111
  • Words Per Sentence
    72
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.51

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.48
  • AFINN
    -2.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.01
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.04

    Topics

  • Reference
  • News/Politics

    Entities

  • American
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
All that is necessary to accomplish the object, and all for which the slave States have ever contended, is to be let alone and permitted to manage their domestic institutions in their own way. As sovereign States, they, and they alone, are responsible before God and the world for the slavery existing among them.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    18.2
  • Coleman Liau
    11.8
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.8
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.8
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    253
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    54
  • Syllables
    87
  • Words Per Sentence
    54
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.56

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.38
  • AFINN
    -5.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.06
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
James Buchanan
For this the people of the North are not more responsible and have no more right to interfere than with similar institutions in Russia or in Brazil. Upon their good sense and patriotic forbearance I confess I still greatly rely. Without their aid it is beyond the power of any President, no matter what may be his own political proclivities, to restore peace and harmony among the States.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.6
  • Gunning Fog
    14.4
  • Coleman Liau
    11.6
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.8

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    316
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    68
  • Syllables
    110
  • Words Per Sentence
    68
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.56

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.78
  • AFINN
    9.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.06
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.01

    Entities

  • Brazil
    [Country, City, State]
  • Russia
    [Country, City, State]
  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • North
    [Location]
James Buchanan
Wisely limited and restrained as is his power under our Constitution and laws, he alone can accomplish but little for good or for evil on such a momentous question. And this brings me to observe that the election of any one of our fellow-citizens to the office of President does not of itself afford just cause for dissolving the Union.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.1
  • Coleman Liau
    10.6
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    273
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    61
  • Syllables
    93
  • Words Per Sentence
    61
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.52

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.42
  • AFINN
    -1.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.02
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • Constitution
    [Law]
James Buchanan
This is more especially true if his election has been effected by a mere plurality, and not a majority of the people, and has resulted from transient and temporary causes, which may probably never again occur. In order to justify a resort to revolutionary resistance, the Federal Government must be guilty of "a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise" of powers not granted by the Constitution.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    334
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    66
  • Syllables
    122
  • Words Per Sentence
    66
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.88

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.51
  • AFINN
    -2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.01
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.04

    Topics

  • News/Politics

    Entities

  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • the Federal Government
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
The late Presidential election, however, has been held in strict conformity with its express provisions. How, then, can the result justify a revolution to destroy this very Constitution? Reason, justice, a regard for the Constitution, all require that we shall wait for some overt and dangerous act on the part of the President elect before resorting to such a remedy.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.9
  • Gunning Fog
    14.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    4.9

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    4.9

    Statistics

  • Characters
    299
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    60
  • Syllables
    106
  • Words Per Sentence
    60
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.67

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.45
  • AFINN
    -3.00
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.06

    Topics

  • News/Politics

    Entities

  • Constitution
    [Law]
James Buchanan
It is said, however, that the antecedents of the President-elect have been sufficient to justify the fears of the South that he will attempt to invade their constitutional rights. But are such apprehensions of contingent danger in the future sufficient to justify the immediate destruction of the noblest system of government ever devised by mortals?

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    291
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    56
  • Syllables
    100
  • Words Per Sentence
    56
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.75

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.92
  • AFINN
    -3.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.02
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.07

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Government

    Entities

  • South
    [Location]
James Buchanan
From the very nature of his office and its high responsibilities he must necessarily be conservative. The stern duty of administering the vast and complicated concerns of this Government affords in itself a guaranty that he will not attempt any violation of a clear constitutional right. After all, he is no more than the chief executive officer of the Government.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    14.7
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.9
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.9
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Statistics

  • Characters
    301
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    60
  • Syllables
    107
  • Words Per Sentence
    60
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.78

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.46
  • AFINN
    -2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.05
James Buchanan
His province is not to make but to execute the laws. And it is a remarkable fact in our history that, notwithstanding the repeated efforts of the antislavery party, no single act has ever passed Congress, unless we may possibly except the Missouri compromise, impairing in the slightest degree the rights of the South to their property in slaves;

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    18.6
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    282
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    59
  • Syllables
    94
  • Words Per Sentence
    59
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.61

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.77
  • AFINN
    -4.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.03
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • Missouri
    [Country, City, State]
  • South
    [Location]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
  • the antislavery party
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
And it may also be observed, judging from present indications, that no probability exists of the passage of such an act by a majority of both Houses, either in the present or the next Congress.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    17.4
  • Coleman Liau
    10.3
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.3
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.3
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    155
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    35
  • Syllables
    54
  • Words Per Sentence
    35
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.54

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.30
  • AFINN
    -1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.03

    Entities

  • Congress
    [Organization]
  • Houses
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Surely under these circumstances we ought to be restrained from present action by the precept of Him who spake as man never spoke, that "sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof." The day of evil may never come unless we shall rashly bring it upon ourselves. It is alleged as one cause for immediate secession that the Southern States are denied equal rights with the other States in the common Territories.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.7
  • Gunning Fog
    12.6
  • Coleman Liau
    11.3
  • SMOG
    11.3
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    341
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    74
  • Syllables
    119
  • Words Per Sentence
    74
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.5

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.87
  • AFINN
    -8.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.02
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.01

    Entities

  • one
    [Cardinal Number]
  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • the Southern States
    [Country, City, State]
  • the day
    [Date]
James Buchanan
But by what authority are these denied? Not by Congress, which has never passed, and I believe never will pass, any act to exclude slavery from these Territories; and certainly not by the Supreme Court, which has solemnly decided that slaves are property, and, like all other property, their owners have a right to take them into the common Territories and hold them there under the protection of the Constitution.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    18.6
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    335
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    70
  • Syllables
    117
  • Words Per Sentence
    70
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.56

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.87
  • AFINN
    -2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.06

    Entities

  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
  • the Supreme Court
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
So far then, as Congress is concerned, the objection is not to anything they have already done, but to what they may do hereafter. It will surely be admitted that this apprehension of future danger is no good reason for an immediate dissolution of the Union. It is true that the Territorial legislature of Kansas, on the 23d February, 1860, passed in great haste an act over the veto of the governor declaring that slavery "is and shall be forever prohibited in this Territory." Such an act, however, plainly violating the rights of property secured by the Constitution, will surely be declared void by the judiciary whenever it shall be presented in a legal form.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    18.5
  • Coleman Liau
    11.2
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    537
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    117
  • Syllables
    193
  • Words Per Sentence
    117
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.65

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.33
  • Harvard IV
    -0.01
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.05

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Government

    Entities

  • Kansas
    [Country, City, State]
  • the 23d February, 1860
    [Date]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • Territory
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Only three days after my inauguration the Supreme Court of the United States solemnly adjudged that this power did not exist in a Territorial legislature. Yet such has been the factious temper of the times that the correctness of this decision has been extensively impugned before the people, and the question has given rise to angry political conflicts throughout the country.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    17.4
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    314
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    61
  • Syllables
    108
  • Words Per Sentence
    61
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.7

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.13
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.03
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.05

    Topics

  • News/Politics
  • Law & Government/Government

    Entities

  • Only three days
    [Date]
  • the Supreme Court of the United States
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Those who have appealed from this judgment of our highest constitutional tribunal to popular assemblies would, if they could, invest a Territorial legislature with power to annul the sacred rights of property. This power Congress is expressly forbidden by the Federal Constitution to exercise. Every State legislature in the Union is forbidden by its own constitution to exercise it.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    17.4
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.4
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.4
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Statistics

  • Characters
    320
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    59
  • Syllables
    110
  • Words Per Sentence
    59
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.9

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.42
  • AFINN
    -1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.03
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Legal
  • Law & Government/Government

    Entities

  • the Federal Constitution
    [Law]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
It can not be exercised in any State except by the people in their highest sovereign capacity, when framing or amending their State constitution. In like manner it can only be exercised by the people of a Territory represented in a convention of delegates for the purpose of framing a constitution preparatory to admission as a State into the Union.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    287
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    60
  • Syllables
    105
  • Words Per Sentence
    60
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.82

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.36
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.05
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Entities

  • Territory
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • State
    [Organization]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Then, and not until then, are they invested with power to decide the question whether slavery shall or shall not exist within their limits. This is an act of sovereign authority, and not of subordinate Territorial legislation. Were it otherwise, then indeed would the equality of the States in the Territories be destroyed, and the rights of property in slaves would depend not upon the guaranties of the Constitution, but upon the shifting majorities of an irresponsible Territorial legislature.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    17.1
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    409
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    79
  • Syllables
    143
  • Words Per Sentence
    79
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.78

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.70
  • AFINN
    -11.00
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • Constitution
    [Law]
James Buchanan
Such a doctrine, from its intrinsic unsoundness, can not long influence any considerable portion of our people, much less can it afford a good reason for a dissolution of the Union. The most palpable violations of constitutional duty which have yet been committed consist in the acts of different State legislatures to defeat the execution of the fugitive-slave law.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    302
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    60
  • Syllables
    107
  • Words Per Sentence
    60
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.73

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.40
  • AFINN
    -3.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.08

    Entities

  • State
    [Organization]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
It ought to be remembered, however, that for these acts neither Congress nor any President can justly be held responsible. Having been passed in violation of the Federal Constitution, they are therefore null and void. All the courts, both State and national, before whom the question has arisen have from the beginning declared the fugitive-slave law to be constitutional.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.5
  • Gunning Fog
    14.7
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    305
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    60
  • Syllables
    107
  • Words Per Sentence
    60
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.63

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.23
  • AFINN
    -3.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.03
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.06

    Entities

  • the Federal Constitution
    [Law]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
  • State
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
The single exception is that of a State court in Wisconsin, and this has not only been reversed by the proper appellate tribunal, but has met with such universal reprobation that there can be no danger from it as a precedent. The validity of this law has been established over and over again by the Supreme Court of the United States with perfect unanimity.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    18.4
  • Coleman Liau
    10.9
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    290
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    64
  • Syllables
    105
  • Words Per Sentence
    64
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.58

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.96
  • AFINN
    5.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.07

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Legal
  • Law & Government/Government/Courts & Judiciary

    Entities

  • Wisconsin
    [Country, City, State]
  • State
    [Organization]
  • the Supreme Court of the United States
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
It is rounded upon an express provision of the Constitution, requiring that fugitive slaves who escape from service in one State to another shall be "delivered up" to their masters. Without this provision it is a well-known historical fact that the Constitution itself could never have been adopted by the Convention.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.6
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    269
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    53
  • Syllables
    93
  • Words Per Sentence
    53
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.66

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.18
  • AFINN
    -4.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • one
    [Cardinal Number]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • State
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
In one form or other, under the acts of 1793 and 1850, both being substantially the same, the fugitive-slave law has been the law of the land from the days of Washington until the present moment. Here, then, a clear case is presented in which it will be the duty of the next President, as it has been my own, to act with vigor in executing this supreme law against the conflicting enactments of State legislatures.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    8.7
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    321
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    77
  • Syllables
    108
  • Words Per Sentence
    77
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.36

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.74
  • AFINN
    4.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.01
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Topics

  • Law & Government

    Entities

  • one
    [Cardinal Number]
  • Washington
    [Country, City, State]
  • 1793
    [Date]
  • 1850
    [Date]
  • the days
    [Date]
  • State
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Should he fail in the performance of this high duty, he will then have manifested a disregard of the Constitution and laws, to the great injury of the people of nearly one-half of the States of the Union. But are we to presume in advance that he will thus violate his duty? This would be at war with every principle of justice and of Christian charity.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    10.2
  • Gunning Fog
    13.7
  • Coleman Liau
    8.9
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    9.5

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.4
  • Sprache
    4.9

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.4
  • Sprache
    4.9

    Statistics

  • Characters
    281
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    67
  • Syllables
    96
  • Words Per Sentence
    67
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.45

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.54
  • AFINN
    -5.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.03
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Entities

  • nearly one-half
    [Cardinal Number]
  • the States of the Union
    [Country, City, State]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • Christian
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
James Buchanan
Let us wait for the overt act. The fugitive-slave law has been carried into execution in every contested case since the commencement of the present Administration, though Often, it is to be regretted, with great loss and inconvenience to the master and with considerable expense to the Government. Let us trust that the State legislatures will repeal their unconstitutional and obnoxious enactments.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.7
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.8
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.8
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    331
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    63
  • Syllables
    116
  • Words Per Sentence
    63
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.76

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.25
  • AFINN
    -9.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.08
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.04

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Legal

    Entities

  • State
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Unless this shall be done without unnecessary delay, it is impossible for any human power to save the Union. The Southern States, standing on the basis of the Constitution, have right to demand this act of justice from the States of the North. Should it be refused, then the Constitution, to which all the States are parties, will have been willfully violated by one portion of them in a provision essential to the domestic security and happiness of the remainder.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.2
  • Coleman Liau
    11.9
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    376
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    80
  • Syllables
    134
  • Words Per Sentence
    80
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.6

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.88
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.03
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.05

    Entities

  • one
    [Cardinal Number]
  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • The Southern States
    [Country, City, State]
  • the States of the North
    [Country, City, State]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
In that event the injured States, after having first used all peaceful and constitutional means to obtain redress, would be justified in revolutionary resistance to the Government of the Union. I have purposely confined my remarks to revolutionary resistance, because it has been claimed within the last few years that any State, whenever this shall be its sovereign will and pleasure, may secede from the Union in accordance with the Constitution and without any violation of the constitutional rights of the other members of the Confederacy;

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    451
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    86
  • Syllables
    159
  • Words Per Sentence
    86
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.78

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.86
  • AFINN
    3.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.05

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Legal

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • the last few years
    [Date]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • first
    [Ordinal Number]
  • Confederacy
    [Organization]
  • State
    [Organization]
  • the Government of the Union
    [Organization]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
That as each became parties to the Union by the vote of its own people assembled in convention, so any one of them may retire from the Union in a similar manner by the vote of such a convention.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    7.5
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    154
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    39
  • Syllables
    53
  • Words Per Sentence
    39
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.46

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.40
  • Harvard IV
    -0.03

    Entities

  • one
    [Cardinal Number]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
In order to justify secession as a constitutional remedy, it must be on the principle that the Federal Government is a mere voluntary association of States, to be dissolved at pleasure by any one of the contracting parties. If this be so, the Confederacy is a rope of sand, to be penetrated and dissolved by the first adverse wave of public opinion in any of the States.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    10.4
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.4
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.4
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    298
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    67
  • Syllables
    111
  • Words Per Sentence
    67
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.64

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.60
  • AFINN
    3.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.05
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Topics

  • Law & Government

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • first
    [Ordinal Number]
  • Confederacy
    [Organization]
  • the Federal Government
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
In this manner our thirty-three States may resolve themselves into as many petty, jarring, and hostile republics, each one retiring from the Union without responsibility whenever any sudden excitement might impel them to such a course. By this process a Union might be entirely broken into fragments in a few weeks which cost our forefathers many years of toil, privation, and blood to establish.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    18.5
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    325
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    65
  • Syllables
    110
  • Words Per Sentence
    65
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.66

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.25
  • AFINN
    3.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.01

    Entities

  • one
    [Cardinal Number]
  • thirty-three
    [Cardinal Number]
  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • a few weeks
    [Date]
James Buchanan
Such a principle is wholly inconsistent with the history as well as the character of the Federal Constitution. After it was framed with the greatest deliberation and care it was submitted to conventions of the people of the several States for ratification. Its provisions were discussed at length in these bodies, composed of the first men of the country.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.7
  • Gunning Fog
    15.3
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.8

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.0
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.0
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Statistics

  • Characters
    293
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    59
  • Syllables
    101
  • Words Per Sentence
    59
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.66

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.86
  • AFINN
    5.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.03
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • the Federal Constitution
    [Law]
  • first
    [Ordinal Number]
James Buchanan
Its opponents contended that it conferred powers upon the Federal Government dangerous to the rights of the States, whilst its advocates maintained that under a fair construction of the instrument there was no foundation for such apprehensions. In that mighty struggle between the first intellects of this or any other country it never occurred to any individual, either among its opponents or advocates, to assert or even to intimate that their efforts were all vain labor, because the moment that any State felt herself aggrieved she might secede from the Union.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.8
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.8
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    468
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    91
  • Syllables
    156
  • Words Per Sentence
    91
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.68

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.74
  • AFINN
    -3.00
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • first
    [Ordinal Number]
  • State
    [Organization]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
What a crushing argument would this have proved against those who dreaded that the rights of the States would be endangered by the Constitution! The truth is that it was not until many years after the origin of the Federal Government that such a proposition was first advanced. It was then met and refuted by the conclusive arguments of General Jackson, who in his message of the 16th of January, 1833, transmitting the nullifying ordinance of South Carolina to Congress, employs the following language: The right of the people of a single State to absolve themselves at will and without the consent of the other States from their most solemn obligations, and hazard the liberties and happiness of the millions composing this Union, can not be acknowledged.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    615
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    127
  • Syllables
    202
  • Words Per Sentence
    127
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.58

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.14
  • AFINN
    4.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.01

    Entities

  • millions
    [Cardinal Number]
  • South Carolina
    [Country, City, State]
  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • many years
    [Date]
  • the 16th of January, 1833
    [Date]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • first
    [Ordinal Number]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
  • State
    [Organization]
  • the Federal Government
    [Organization]
  • Jackson
    [Person]
James Buchanan
Such authority is believed to be utterly repugnant both to the principles upon which the General Government is constituted and to the objects which it is expressly formed to attain. It is not pretended that any clause in the Constitution gives countenance to such a theory. It is altogether rounded upon inference;

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.8
  • Gunning Fog
    15.4
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    10.8

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    4.4

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    4.4

    Statistics

  • Characters
    260
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    52
  • Syllables
    90
  • Words Per Sentence
    52
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.75

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.08
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.08

    Topics

  • Law & Government

    Entities

  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • the General Government
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
Not from any language contained in the instrument itself, but from the sovereign character of the several States by which it was ratified.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    17.9
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.6
  • Sprache
    4.1

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.6
  • Sprache
    4.1

    Statistics

  • Characters
    114
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    23
  • Syllables
    39
  • Words Per Sentence
    23
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.61

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.23
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04

    Topics

  • Arts & Entertainment

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
James Buchanan
But is it beyond the power of a State, like an individual, to yield a portion of its sovereign rights to secure the remainder? In the language of Mr. Madison, who has been called the father of the Constitution -- It was formed by the States; that is, by the people in each of the States acting in their highest sovereign capacity, and formed, consequently, by the same authority which formed the State constitutions.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.7
  • Gunning Fog
    14.7
  • Coleman Liau
    10.8
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    330
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    73
  • Syllables
    117
  • Words Per Sentence
    73
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.51

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.78
  • AFINN
    5.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.06
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.01

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • State
    [Organization]
  • Madison
    [Person]
James Buchanan
Nor is the Government of the United States, created by the Constitution, less a government, in the strict sense of the term, within the sphere of its powers than the governments created by the constitutions of the States are within their several spheres. It is, like them, organized into legislative, executive, and judiciary departments.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    17.5
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    275
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    54
  • Syllables
    96
  • Words Per Sentence
    54
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.69

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.81
  • AFINN
    3.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.05

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Government

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • the United States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
James Buchanan
It operates, like them directly on persons and things, and, like them, it has at command a physical force for executing the powers committed to it. It was intended to be perpetual, and not to be annulled at the pleasure of any one of the contracting parties. The old Articles of Confederation were entitled "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States," and by the thirteenth article it is expressly declared that "the articles of this Confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual." The preamble to the Constitution of the United States, having express reference to the Articles of Confederation, recites that it was established "in order to form a more perfect union." And yet it is contended that this "more perfect union" does not include the essential attribute of perpetuity.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    18.3
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.2
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    720
  • Sentences
    5
  • Words
    146
  • Syllables
    249
  • Words Per Sentence
    146
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.74

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.98
  • AFINN
    16.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.07
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.01

    Entities

  • the Constitution of the United States
    [Law]
  • thirteenth
    [Ordinal Number]
  • Articles of Confederation
    [Organization]
  • Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union
    [Organization]
  • State
    [Organization]
  • the Articles of Confederation
    [Organization]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
But that the Union was designed to be perpetual appears conclusively from the nature and extent of the powers conferred by the Constitution on the Federal Government. These powers embrace the very highest attributes of national sovereignty. They place both the sword and the purse under its control. Congress has power to make war and to make peace, to raise and support armies and navies, and to conclude treaties with foreign governments.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    10.4
  • Gunning Fog
    10.5
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.3

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.3
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.3
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    363
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    72
  • Syllables
    125
  • Words Per Sentence
    72
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.61

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.71
  • AFINN
    3.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.06
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.03

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Government

    Entities

  • the Constitution on the Federal Government
    [Law]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
  • Union
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
It is invested with the power to coin money and to regulate the value thereof, and to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several States. It is not necessary to enumerate the other high powers which have been conferred upon the Federal Government. In order to carry the enumerated powers into effect, Congress possesses the exclusive right to lay and collect duties on imports, and, in common with the States, to lay and collect all other taxes.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    15.1
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    376
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    79
  • Syllables
    133
  • Words Per Sentence
    79
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.65

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.44
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Topics

  • Finance
  • Business & Industrial

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
  • the Federal Government
    [Organization]
James Buchanan
But the Constitution has not only conferred these high powers upon Congress, but it has adopted effectual means to restrain the States from interfering with their exercise. For that purpose it has in strong prohibitory language expressly declared that -- No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation;

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.3
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    264
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    49
  • Syllables
    93
  • Words Per Sentence
    49
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.78

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.39
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.09

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Legal

    Entities

  • States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • Congress
    [Organization]