Calvin Coolidge: State of the Union Written Message - December 6, 1927

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.7
  • Gunning Fog
    14.8
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.6

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    43,896
  • Sentences
    454
  • Words
    8,878
  • Syllables
    14,875
  • Words Per Sentence
    8,878
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.66

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Government
Calvin Coolidge
Members of the Congress:

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    3.7
  • Gunning Fog
    1.6
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    3.3
  • ARI
    4.1

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.1
  • Sprache
    1.3

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.1
  • Sprache
    1.3

    Statistics

  • Characters
    20
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    4
  • Syllables
    6
  • Words Per Sentence
    4
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.5

    Entities

  • Congress
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
It is gratifying to report that for the fourth consecutive year the state of the Union in general is good. We are at peace. The country as a whole has had a prosperity never exceeded. Wages are at their highest range, employment is plentiful. Some parts of agriculture and industry have lagged; some localities have suffered from storm and flood.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    7.4
  • Gunning Fog
    11.5
  • Coleman Liau
    11.7
  • SMOG
    11.7
  • ARI
    6.6

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.5
  • Sprache
    3.8

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.5
  • Sprache
    3.8

    Statistics

  • Characters
    280
  • Sentences
    5
  • Words
    60
  • Syllables
    99
  • Words Per Sentence
    60
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.55

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.65
  • AFINN
    4.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Entities

  • the fourth consecutive year
    [Date]
  • Union
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
But such losses have been absorbed without serious detriment to our great economic structure. Stocks of goods are moderate and a wholesome caution is prevalent. Rates of interest for industry, agriculture, and government have been reduced. Savers and investors are providing capital for new construction in industry and public works.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    10.3
  • Gunning Fog
    17.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    4.1

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    4.1

    Statistics

  • Characters
    278
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    50
  • Syllables
    96
  • Words Per Sentence
    50
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.78

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.81
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.16
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.04

    Topics

  • Business & Industrial
  • News/Business News
Calvin Coolidge
The purchasing power of agriculture has increased. If the people maintain that confidence which they are entitled to have in themselves, in each other, and in America, a comfortable prosperity will continue.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.4
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.7

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.2
  • Sprache
    3.4

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.2
  • Sprache
    3.4

    Statistics

  • Characters
    171
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    32
  • Syllables
    62
  • Words Per Sentence
    32
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.84

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.87
  • AFINN
    9.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.11
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.06

    Topics

  • Business & Industrial/Agriculture & Forestry

    Entities

  • America
    [Country, City, State]
Header
CONSTRUCTIVE ECONOMY

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    0.8
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    11.3
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    10.0
  • Sprache
    1.1

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    10.0
  • Sprache
    1.1

    Statistics

  • Characters
    19
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    2
  • Syllables
    7
  • Words Per Sentence
    2
  • Syllables Per Word
    3.5

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.91
  • AFINN
    -8.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.01
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02
Calvin Coolidge
Without constructive economy in Government expenditures we should not now be enjoying these results or these prospects. Because we are not now physically at war, some people are disposed to forget that our war debt still remains. The Nation must make financial sacrifices, accompanied by a stern self-denial in public expenditures, until we have conquered the disabilities of our public finance.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    328
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    62
  • Syllables
    115
  • Words Per Sentence
    62
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.76

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.40
  • AFINN
    -2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Government
  • News/Politics
  • People & Society
Calvin Coolidge
While our obligation to veterans and dependents is large and continuing, the heavier burden of the national debt is being steadily eliminated. At the end of this fiscal year it will be reduced from about $26,600,000,000 to about $17,975,000,000. Annual interest, including war savings, will have been reduced from $1,055,000,000 to $670,0001,000. The sacrifices of the people, the economy of the Government, are showing remarkable results.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    8.8
  • Gunning Fog
    15.0
  • Coleman Liau
    7.7
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    7.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.3
  • Sprache
    4.9

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.3
  • Sprache
    4.9

    Statistics

  • Characters
    308
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    77
  • Syllables
    109
  • Words Per Sentence
    77
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.43

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.75
  • AFINN
    -1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.09
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.01

    Topics

  • Finance
  • Law & Government/Military

    Entities

  • Annual
    [Date]
  • the end of this fiscal year
    [Date]
  • 1,055,000,000
    [Money]
  • 670,0001,000
    [Money]
  • about $17,975,000,000
    [Money]
  • about $26,600,000,000
    [Money]
  • Government
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
They should be continued for the purpose of relieving the Nation of the burden of interest and debt and releasing revenue for internal improvements and national development. Not only the amount, but the rate, of Government interest has been reduced. Callable bonds have been refunded and paid, so that during this year the average rate of interest on the present public debt for the first time fell below 4 per cent.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    17.4
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    339
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    71
  • Syllables
    116
  • Words Per Sentence
    71
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.56

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.70
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.25
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.14

    Entities

  • this year
    [Date]
  • below 4 per cent
    [Money]
  • first
    [Ordinal Number]
Calvin Coolidge
Keeping the credit of the Nation high is a tremendously profitable operation.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    14.8
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    10.1

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    8.5
  • Sprache
    2.6

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    8.5
  • Sprache
    2.6

    Statistics

  • Characters
    65
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    12
  • Syllables
    24
  • Words Per Sentence
    12
  • Syllables Per Word
    2

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.79
  • AFINN
    -2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
Header
TAX REDUCTION

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    8.8
  • Gunning Fog
    0.8
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    9.0
  • ARI
    7.8

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    8.0
  • Sprache
    1.1

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    8.0
  • Sprache
    1.1

    Statistics

  • Characters
    12
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    2
  • Syllables
    4
  • Words Per Sentence
    2
  • Syllables Per Word
    2

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.83
  • AFINN
    4.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.08
Calvin Coolidge
The immediate fruit of economy and the retirement of the public debt is tax reduction. The annual saving in interest between 1925 and 1929 is $212,000,000. Without this no bill to relieve the taxpayers would be worth proposing. The three measures already enacted leave our Government revenues where they are not oppressive.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    7.8
  • Gunning Fog
    14.3
  • Coleman Liau
    11.2
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    7.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.5
  • Sprache
    3.9

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.5
  • Sprache
    3.9

    Statistics

  • Characters
    248
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    54
  • Syllables
    87
  • Words Per Sentence
    54
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.54

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.11
  • AFINN
    -2.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.06
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.05

    Topics

  • Finance
  • Law & Government/Government
  • News

    Entities

  • three
    [Cardinal Number]
  • annual
    [Date]
  • between 1925 and 1929
    [Date]
  • 212,000,000
    [Money]
Calvin Coolidge
Exemptions, have been increased until 115,000,000 people make but 2,500,000 individual taxable returns, so that further reduction should be mainly for the purpose of removing inequalities. The Secretary of the Treasury has recommended a measure which would give us a much better balanced system of taxation and without oppression produce sufficient revenue.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.0
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    282
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    56
  • Syllables
    101
  • Words Per Sentence
    56
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.75

    Sentiment

  • AFINN
    -4.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.03

    Topics

  • Finance

    Entities

  • 115,000,000
    [Cardinal Number]
  • 2,500,000
    [Cardinal Number]
  • Treasury
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
It has my complete support. Unforeseen contingencies requiring money are always arising. Our probable surplus for June 30, 1929, is small. A slight depression in business would greatly reduce our revenue because of our present method of taxation. The people ought to take no selfish attitude of pressing for removing moderate and fair taxes which might produce a deficit.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    8.8
  • Gunning Fog
    12.9
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    8.4

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.0
  • Sprache
    4.2

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.0
  • Sprache
    4.2

    Statistics

  • Characters
    300
  • Sentences
    5
  • Words
    59
  • Syllables
    104
  • Words Per Sentence
    59
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.68

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.77
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.12
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • June 30, 1929
    [Date]
Calvin Coolidge
We must keep our budget balanced for each year. That is the corner stone of our national credit, the trifling price we pay to command the lowest rate of interest of any great power in the world. Any surplus can be applied to debt reduction, and debt reduction is tax reduction. Under the present circumstances it would be far better to leave the rates as they are than to enact a bill carrying the peril of a deficit.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    8.8
  • Gunning Fog
    11.4
  • Coleman Liau
    9.4
  • SMOG
    10.8
  • ARI
    8.5

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.0
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.0
  • Sprache
    4.8

    Statistics

  • Characters
    334
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    78
  • Syllables
    116
  • Words Per Sentence
    78
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.42

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.92
  • AFINN
    -18.00
  • Harvard IV
    -0.05
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.05

    Topics

  • Finance

    Entities

  • each year
    [Date]
Calvin Coolidge
This is not a problem to be approached in a narrow or partisan spirit. All of those who participate in finding a reasonable solution will be entitled to participate in any credit that accrues from it without regard to party. The Congress has already demonstrated that tax legislation can be removed from purely political consideration into the realm of patriotic business principles.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.7
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.9
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    319
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    62
  • Syllables
    116
  • Words Per Sentence
    62
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.84

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.91
  • AFINN
    7.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.13
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Topics

  • People & Society/Social Issues & Advocacy

    Entities

  • Congress
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
Any bill for tax reduction should be written by those who are responsible for raising, managing, and expending the finances of the Government. If special interests, too often selfish, always uninformed of the national needs as a whole, with hired agents using their proposed beneficiaries as engines of propaganda, are permitted to influence the withdrawal of their property from taxation, we shall have a law that is unbalanced and unjust, bad for business, bad for the country, probably resulting in a deficit, with disastrous financial Consequences.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    454
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    86
  • Syllables
    159
  • Words Per Sentence
    86
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.79

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.97
  • AFINN
    11.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.03
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.06

    Topics

  • Finance/Accounting & Auditing/Tax Preparation & Planning
  • Law & Government
Calvin Coolidge
The Constitution has given the Members of the Congress sole authority to decide what tax measures shall be presented for approval. While welcoming information from any quarter, the Congress should continue to exercise its own judgment in a matter so vital and important to all the interests of the country as taxation.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    18.1
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    264
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    52
  • Syllables
    89
  • Words Per Sentence
    52
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.71

    Sentiment

  • AFINN
    4.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.05
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.04

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Legal

    Entities

  • any quarter
    [Date]
  • Constitution
    [Law]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
Header
NATIONAL DEFENSE

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    0.8
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    11.3
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    8.0
  • Sprache
    1.1

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    8.0
  • Sprache
    1.1

    Statistics

  • Characters
    15
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    2
  • Syllables
    6
  • Words Per Sentence
    2
  • Syllables Per Word
    3

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.08
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.07
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.04
Calvin Coolidge
Being a nation relying not on force, but on fair dealing and good will, to maintain peace with others, we have provided a moderate military force in a form adapted solely to defense. It should be continued with a very generous supply of officers and with the present base of personnel, subject to fluctuations which may be temporarily desirable.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    281
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    59
  • Syllables
    102
  • Words Per Sentence
    59
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.68

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.60
  • Harvard IV
    0.11
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02
Calvin Coolidge
The five-year program for our air forces is in keeping with this same policy and commensurate with the notable contributions of America to the science of aeronautics. The provisions of the law lately enacted are being executed as fast as the practical difficulties of an orderly and stable development permit.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    257
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    51
  • Syllables
    94
  • Words Per Sentence
    51
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.78

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.59
  • Harvard IV
    0.03

    Topics

  • Business & Industrial
  • Law & Government/Military

    Entities

  • America
    [Country, City, State]
  • five-year
    [Date]
Calvin Coolidge
While our Army is small, prudence requires that it should be kept in a high state of efficiency and provided with such supplies as would permit of its immediate expansion. The garrison ration has lately been increased. Recommendations for an appropriation of $6,166,000 for new housing made to the previous Congress failed to pass.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    10.0
  • Gunning Fog
    13.9
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    10.1

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.3
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Statistics

  • Characters
    264
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    56
  • Syllables
    89
  • Words Per Sentence
    56
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.55

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.94
  • AFINN
    7.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.13
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Military

    Entities

  • 6,166,000
    [Money]
  • Army
    [Organization]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
While most of the Army is well housed, some of it which is quartered in wartime training camps is becoming poorly housed. In the past three years $12,533,000 have been appropriated for reconstruction and repairs, and an authorization has been approved of $22,301,000 for new housing, under which $8,070,000 has already been appropriated.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.9
  • Gunning Fog
    15.9
  • Coleman Liau
    8.9
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    248
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    59
  • Syllables
    83
  • Words Per Sentence
    59
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.36

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.74
  • AFINN
    4.00

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Military

    Entities

  • the past three years
    [Date]
  • 12,533,000
    [Money]
  • 22,301,000
    [Money]
  • 8,070,000
    [Money]
  • Army
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
A law has also been passed, complying with the request of the War Department, allocating funds received from the sale of buildings and land for housing purposes. The work, however, is not completed, so that other appropriations are being recommended. Our Navy is likewise a weapon of defense. We have a foreign commerce and ocean lines of trade unsurpassed by any other country.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    9.7
  • Gunning Fog
    11.4
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    11.8
  • ARI
    9.4

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.8
  • Sprache
    4.5

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.8
  • Sprache
    4.5

    Statistics

  • Characters
    307
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    63
  • Syllables
    106
  • Words Per Sentence
    63
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.62

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.69
  • AFINN
    7.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.10
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Topics

  • Law & Government/Legal

    Entities

  • Navy
    [Organization]
  • the War Department
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
We have outlying territory in the two great oceans and long stretches of seacoast studded with the richest cities in the world. We are responsible for the protection of a large population and the greatest treasure ever bestowed upon any people. We are charged with an international duty of defending the Panama Canal.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.6
  • Gunning Fog
    12.3
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    10.7

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.0
  • Sprache
    4.2

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.0
  • Sprache
    4.2

    Statistics

  • Characters
    262
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    53
  • Syllables
    91
  • Words Per Sentence
    53
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.72

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.90
  • AFINN
    5.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.12
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • two
    [Cardinal Number]
  • the Panama Canal
    [Infrastructure]
Calvin Coolidge
To meet these responsibilities we need a very substantial sea armament. It needs aircraft development, which is being provided under the five-year program. It needs submarines as soon as the department decides upon the best type of construction. It needs airplane carriers and a material addition to its force of cruisers.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    9.4
  • Gunning Fog
    13.7
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    9.2

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    3.6

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.5
  • Sprache
    3.6

    Statistics

  • Characters
    266
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    52
  • Syllables
    90
  • Words Per Sentence
    52
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.69

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.23
  • Harvard IV
    0.05
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.07

    Topics

  • Business & Industrial

    Entities

  • five-year
    [Date]
Calvin Coolidge
We can plan for the future and begin a moderate building program. This country has put away the Old World policy of competitive armaments. It can never be relieved of the responsibility of adequate national defense. We have one treaty secured by an unprecedented attitude of generosity on our part for a limitation in naval armament.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.4
  • Gunning Fog
    14.9
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    8.6

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.8
  • Sprache
    3.9

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.8
  • Sprache
    3.9

    Statistics

  • Characters
    274
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    56
  • Syllables
    104
  • Words Per Sentence
    56
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.82

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.23
  • AFINN
    -2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.01
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.04

    Entities

  • one
    [Cardinal Number]
Calvin Coolidge
After most careful preparation, extending over months, we recently made every effort to secure a three-power treaty to the same end. We were granted much cooperation by Japan, but we were unable to come to an agreement with Great Britain. While the results of the conference were of considerable value, they were mostly of a negative character.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.7
  • Gunning Fog
    15.3
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Statistics

  • Characters
    280
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    58
  • Syllables
    103
  • Words Per Sentence
    58
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.67

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.36
  • AFINN
    -2.00
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • three
    [Cardinal Number]
  • Great Britain
    [Country, City, State]
  • Japan
    [Country, City, State]
  • over months
    [Date]
Calvin Coolidge
We know now that no agreement can be reached which will be inconsistent with a considerable building program on our part. We are ready and willing to continue the preparatory investigations on the general subject of limitation of armaments which have been started under the auspices of the League of Nations.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    18.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    256
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    51
  • Syllables
    86
  • Words Per Sentence
    51
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.71

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.93
  • AFINN
    -3.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03

    Topics

  • People & Society

    Entities

  • the League of Nations
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
We have a considerable cruiser tonnage, but a part of it is obsolete. Everyone knew that had a three-power agreement been reached it would have left us with the necessity of continuing our building program. The failure to agree should not cause us to build either more or less than we otherwise should. Any future treaty of limitation will call on us for more ships.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    8.2
  • Gunning Fog
    11.4
  • Coleman Liau
    10.6
  • SMOG
    11.3
  • ARI
    7.9

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.9
  • Sprache
    4.2

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.9
  • Sprache
    4.2

    Statistics

  • Characters
    296
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    66
  • Syllables
    101
  • Words Per Sentence
    66
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.47

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.32
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.18

    Topics

  • Autos & Vehicles/Boats & Watercraft
  • Hobbies & Leisure/Water Activities/Boating

    Entities

  • three
    [Cardinal Number]
Calvin Coolidge
We should enter on no competition. We should refrain from no needful program. It should be made clear to all the world that lacking a definite agreement, the attitude of any other country is not to be permitted to alter our own policy. It should especially be demonstrated that propaganda will not cause us to change our course.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    8.2
  • Gunning Fog
    12.0
  • Coleman Liau
    11.2
  • SMOG
    11.8
  • ARI
    7.4

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.8
  • Sprache
    3.6

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.8
  • Sprache
    3.6

    Statistics

  • Characters
    266
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    58
  • Syllables
    86
  • Words Per Sentence
    58
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.53

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.72
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.03
Calvin Coolidge
Where there is no treaty limitation, the size of the Navy which America is to have will be solely for America to determine. No outside influence should enlarge it or diminish it. But it should be known to all that our military power holds no threat of aggrandizement. It is a guaranty of peace and security at home, and when it goes abroad it is an instrument for the protection of the legal rights of our citizens under international law, a refuge in time of disorder, and always the servant of world peace.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.7
  • Gunning Fog
    15.3
  • Coleman Liau
    10.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    10.9

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.7
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    408
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    93
  • Syllables
    147
  • Words Per Sentence
    93
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.55

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.28
  • AFINN
    6.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.08
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.01

    Topics

  • Law & Government

    Entities

  • America
    [Country, City, State]
  • Navy
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
Wherever our flag goes the rights of humanity increase.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    7.6
  • Gunning Fog
    8.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    11.3
  • ARI
    7.1

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    2.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.7
  • Sprache
    2.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    46
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    9
  • Syllables
    14
  • Words Per Sentence
    9
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.67

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.62
  • AFINN
    -2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.08
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02
Header
MERCHANT MARINE

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    8.8
  • Gunning Fog
    0.8
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    3.3
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    10.0
  • Sprache
    1.1

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    10.0
  • Sprache
    1.1

    Statistics

  • Characters
    14
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    2
  • Syllables
    4
  • Words Per Sentence
    2
  • Syllables Per Word
    2

    Sentiment

  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02
Calvin Coolidge
The United States Government fleet is transporting a large amount of freight and reducing its drain on the Treasury. The Shipping Board is constantly under pressure, to which it too often yields, to protect private interests, rather than serve the public welfare. More attention should be given to merchant ships as an auxiliary of the Navy.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    10.7
  • Gunning Fog
    11.8
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.5

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.9
  • Sprache
    4.9

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.9
  • Sprache
    4.9

    Statistics

  • Characters
    280
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    56
  • Syllables
    91
  • Words Per Sentence
    56
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.61

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.25
  • AFINN
    1.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.02
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Topics

  • Business & Industrial/Transportation & Logistics/Maritime Transport

    Entities

  • Navy
    [Organization]
  • The Shipping Board
    [Organization]
  • Treasury
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
The possibility of including their masters and crews in the Naval Reserve, with some reasonable compensation, should be thoroughly explored as a method of encouraging private operation of shipping. Public operation is not a success. No investigation, of which I have caused several to be made, has failed to report that it could not succeed or to recommend speedy transfer to private ownership.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    7.3
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    7.3
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    325
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    63
  • Syllables
    116
  • Words Per Sentence
    63
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.76

    Sentiment

  • Harvard IV
    0.16

    Entities

  • the Naval Reserve
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
Our exporters and importers are both indifferent about using American ships. It should be our policy to keep our present vessels in repair and dispose of them as rapidly as possible, rather than undertake any new construction. Their operation is a burden on the National Treasury, for which we are not receiving sufficient benefits.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    16.1
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.5

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.6
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Statistics

  • Characters
    274
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    54
  • Syllables
    98
  • Words Per Sentence
    54
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.78

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.70
  • AFINN
    4.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Topics

  • Business & Industrial/Transportation & Logistics/Maritime Transport

    Entities

  • American
    [Nationality, Political or Religious Group]
  • the National Treasury
    [Organization]
Header
COMMERCIAL AVIATION

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    0.8
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    11.3
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    10.0
  • Sprache
    1.1

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    10.0
  • Sprache
    1.1

    Statistics

  • Characters
    18
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    2
  • Syllables
    6
  • Words Per Sentence
    2
  • Syllables Per Word
    3.5

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.49
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.05
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03
Calvin Coolidge
A rapid growth is taking place in aeronautics. The Department of Commerce has charge of the inspection and licensing system and the construction of national airways. Almost 8,000 miles are already completed and about 4,000 miles more contemplated. Nearly 4,400 miles are now equipped and over 3,000 miles more will have lighting and emergency landing fields by next July.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    7.8
  • Gunning Fog
    12.0
  • Coleman Liau
    11.2
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    8.1

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.3
  • Sprache
    4.3

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.3
  • Sprache
    4.3

    Statistics

  • Characters
    289
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    63
  • Syllables
    102
  • Words Per Sentence
    63
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.46

    Sentiment

  • Harvard IV
    -0.07
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.07

    Topics

  • Business & Industrial

    Entities

  • next July
    [Date]
  • The Department of Commerce
    [Organization]
  • about 4,000 miles
    [Quantity]
  • Almost 8,000 miles
    [Quantity]
  • Nearly 4,400 miles
    [Quantity]
  • over 3,000 miles
    [Quantity]
Calvin Coolidge
Air mail contracts are expected to cover 24 of these lines. Daily airway flying is nearly 15,000 miles and is expected to reach 25,000 miles early next year. Flights for other purposes exceed 22,000 miles each day. Over 900 airports, completed and uncompleted, have been laid out. The demand for aircraft has greatly increased.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    4.4
  • Gunning Fog
    8.8
  • Coleman Liau
    9.4
  • SMOG
    9.5
  • ARI
    4.4

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.2
  • Sprache
    3.4

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.2
  • Sprache
    3.4

    Statistics

  • Characters
    244
  • Sentences
    5
  • Words
    57
  • Syllables
    80
  • Words Per Sentence
    57
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.32

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.96
  • AFINN
    13.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.18
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.06

    Topics

  • Business & Industrial/Transportation & Logistics
  • Travel/Air Travel

    Entities

  • 24
    [Cardinal Number]
  • Daily
    [Date]
  • early next year
    [Date]
  • 22,000 miles
    [Quantity]
  • 25,000 miles
    [Quantity]
  • nearly 15,000 miles
    [Quantity]
Calvin Coolidge
The policy already adopted by the Congress is producing the sound development of this coming industry.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.9

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.7
  • Sprache
    3.2

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.7
  • Sprache
    3.2

    Statistics

  • Characters
    86
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    16
  • Syllables
    30
  • Words Per Sentence
    16
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.94

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.89
  • AFINN
    7.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.01
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Entities

  • Congress
    [Organization]
Header
WESTERN HEMISPHERE AIR MAIL

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    6.6
  • Gunning Fog
    1.6
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    9.0
  • ARI
    8.8

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.1
  • Sprache
    1.3

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.1
  • Sprache
    1.3

    Statistics

  • Characters
    24
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    4
  • Syllables
    8
  • Words Per Sentence
    4
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.75

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.76
  • AFINN
    6.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.08

    Entities

  • WESTERN HEMISPHERE AIR MAIL
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
Private enterprise is showing much interest in opening up aviation service to Mexico and Central and South America. We are particularly solicitous to have the United States take a leading part in this development. It is understood that the governments of our sister countries would be willing to cooperate.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    14.7
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.2

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    4.4

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.0
  • Sprache
    4.4

    Statistics

  • Characters
    255
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    49
  • Syllables
    90
  • Words Per Sentence
    49
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.82

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.45
  • AFINN
    10.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.10
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Topics

  • Business & Industrial/Transportation & Logistics
  • Travel/Air Travel

    Entities

  • Mexico
    [Country, City, State]
  • the United States
    [Country, City, State]
  • Central and South America
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
Their physical features, the undeveloped state of their transportation, make an air service especially adaptable to their usage. The Post Office Department should be granted power to make liberal long-term contracts for carrying our mail, and authority should be given to the Army and the Navy to detail aviators and planes to cooperate with private enterprise in establishing such mail service with the consent of the countries concerned.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    12.0
  • Gunning Fog
    19.0
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.5
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    366
  • Sentences
    2
  • Words
    69
  • Syllables
    121
  • Words Per Sentence
    69
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.68

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.89
  • AFINN
    7.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.11
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.02

    Entities

  • Army
    [Organization]
  • Navy
    [Organization]
  • The Post Office Department
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
A committee of the Cabinet will later present a report on this subject.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    8.5
  • Gunning Fog
    8.3
  • Coleman Liau
    10.5
  • SMOG
    11.3
  • ARI
    6.1

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    3.1
  • Sprache
    2.6

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    3.1
  • Sprache
    2.6

    Statistics

  • Characters
    58
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    13
  • Syllables
    22
  • Words Per Sentence
    13
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.62

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    -0.60
  • Harvard IV
    -0.03
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.01

    Entities

  • Cabinet
    [Organization]
Header
GOOD ROADS

    Grade Level Score

  • Gunning Fog
    0.8
  • Coleman Liau
    10.6
  • SMOG
    3.3
  • ARI
    0.8

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    0.1
  • Sprache
    0.9

    Statistics

  • Characters
    9
  • Sentences
    1
  • Words
    2
  • Syllables
    2
  • Words Per Sentence
    2
  • Syllables Per Word
    1

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.08
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Loughran-McDonald
    -0.03
Calvin Coolidge
The importance and benefit of good roads is more and more coming to be appreciated. The National Government has been making liberal contributions to encourage their construction. The results and benefits have been very gratifying. National participation, however, should be confined to trunk-line systems.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    10.8
  • Gunning Fog
    15.2
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    10.9

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.8
  • Sprache
    3.4

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.8
  • Sprache
    3.4

    Statistics

  • Characters
    255
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    45
  • Syllables
    86
  • Words Per Sentence
    45
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.87

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.59
  • AFINN
    3.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.02
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.03

    Entities

  • The National Government
    [Organization]
Calvin Coolidge
The national tax on automobiles is now nearly sufficient to meet this outlay. This tax is very small, and on low-priced cars is not more than $2 or $3 each year. While the advantage of having good roads is very large, the desire for improved highways is not limited to our own country. It should and does include all the Western Hemisphere.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    6.7
  • Gunning Fog
    9.5
  • Coleman Liau
    9.2
  • SMOG
    10.3
  • ARI
    6.5

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    3.0
  • Sprache
    3.9

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    3.0
  • Sprache
    3.9

    Statistics

  • Characters
    268
  • Sentences
    4
  • Words
    63
  • Syllables
    92
  • Words Per Sentence
    63
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.37

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.90
  • AFINN
    6.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.14
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.05

    Topics

  • Autos & Vehicles
  • Finance/Accounting & Auditing/Tax Preparation & Planning

    Entities

  • each year
    [Date]
  • the Western Hemisphere
    [Location]
  • 3
    [Money]
  • more than $2
    [Money]
Calvin Coolidge
The principal points in Canada are already accessible. We ought to lend our encouragement in any way we can for more good roads to all the principal points in this hemisphere south of the Rio Grande. It has been our practice to supply these countries with military and naval advisers, when they have requested it, to assist them in national defense.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    10.9
  • Gunning Fog
    15.3
  • Coleman Liau
    11.6
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    10.7

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    5.2
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    5.2
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Statistics

  • Characters
    284
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    61
  • Syllables
    97
  • Words Per Sentence
    61
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.57

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.87
  • AFINN
    11.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.06
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.06

    Topics

  • Law & Government

    Entities

  • Canada
    [Country, City, State]
  • the Rio Grande
    [Location]
Calvin Coolidge
The arts of peace are even more important to them and to us. Authority should be given by law to provide them at their request with engineering advisers for the construction of roads and bridges. In some of these countries already wonderful progress is being made in road building, but the engineering features are often very exacting and the financing difficult.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.3
  • Gunning Fog
    15.3
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    11.8

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    4.4
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    4.4
  • Sprache
    4.6

    Statistics

  • Characters
    299
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    61
  • Syllables
    99
  • Words Per Sentence
    61
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.61

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.80
  • AFINN
    2.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.04
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.01
Calvin Coolidge
Private interests should look with favor on all reasonable loans sought by these countries to open such main lines of travel. This general subject has been promoted by the Pan American Congress of Highways, which will convene again at Rio de Janeiro in July, 1928. It is desirable that the Congress should provide for the appointment of delegates to represent the Government of the United States.

    Grade Level Score

  • Flesch Kincaid
    11.9
  • Gunning Fog
    13.6
  • Coleman Liau
    12.0
  • SMOG
    12.0
  • ARI
    12.0

    Readability Score

  • Dale Chall
    6.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Difficult Words

  • Dale Chall
    6.1
  • Sprache
    5.0

    Statistics

  • Characters
    322
  • Sentences
    3
  • Words
    66
  • Syllables
    105
  • Words Per Sentence
    66
  • Syllables Per Word
    1.61

    Sentiment

  • VADER
    0.88
  • AFINN
    6.00
  • Harvard IV
    0.05
  • Loughran-McDonald
    0.02

    Entities

  • Rio de Janeiro
    [Country, City, State]
  • the United States
    [Country, City, State]
  • July, 1928
    [Date]
  • Congress
    [Organization]
  • the Pan American Congress of Highways
    [Organization]